All The Building Blocks For Life Discovered on Saturn's Ocean Moon Enceladus, Research Shows

Saturn's intriguing ocean moon, Enceladus, has long captivated scientists in the quest for extraterrestrial life. 

Recent research, leveraging data from NASA's Cassini mission, has bolstered the notion that Enceladus possesses the necessary chemical elements for life. Cassini's exploration, which concluded in 2017, continues to provide valuable insights through its extensive data.

The study's focal point is the detection of water plumes erupting through Enceladus' icy surface, analyzed by Cassini's Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA). These plumes, rich in phosphate, revealed a surprising mix of volatiles, including carbon dioxide, water vapor, carbon monoxide, molecular nitrogen, simple hydrocarbons, and complex organic chemicals.

This diagram provides a cross-sectional view of Enceladus, encapsulating the processes analyzed by scientists from the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) in their 2020 study. It depicts how oxidants, formed in the moon's surface ice when radiation splits water molecules, interact with reductants generated from hydrothermal activities and various water-rock interactions. This combination potentially forms a vital energy source that could sustain life in the moon's subsurface ocean. (SwRI)

A new research paper, led by Daniel Muratore from the Santa Fe Institute, delves into the presence of ammonia and inorganic phosphorous in Enceladus' ocean. The study employs ecological and metabolic theory to assess the potential for life in this environment. A key aspect of this theory is the Redfield ratio, which reflects a consistent balance of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous in ocean biomass, suggesting a chemical equilibrium essential for simple life forms.

Enceladus' ocean chemistry, as revealed by Cassini, includes high levels of inorganic phosphate and other life-essential chemicals like amino acid precursors, ammonium, and hydrocarbons. This rich chemical makeup, particularly the presence of phosphorous and ammonia, aligns with the requirements for methanogenesis, a metabolic process performed by Earth's Archaea in diverse environments.

The researchers developed a detailed model to explore the viability of methanogens in Enceladus' ocean, considering the Redfield ratio. While phosphorous is abundant, the overall nutrient balance may limit the growth of Earth-like cells. This suggests either a nascent or slow-developing biosphere, or other factors affecting the chemical equilibrium.

This study marks a significant step in biosignature science, moving beyond identifying individual chemicals to understanding entire ecosystems. As we advance in instrument science and embark on missions to moons like Europa, our understanding of extraterrestrial habitability will deepen, potentially uncovering life forms that reorganize chemicals in ways distinct from Earth.