In a remarkable scientific endeavor, researchers have simulated the conditions of plunging deep into the atmosphere of Uranus, one of the Solar System’s distant ice giants. This simulation, conducted using a high-temperature plasma tunnel, offers unprecedented insights into the challenges and possibilities of future space missions to Uranus and its almost-twin, Neptune. The Simulation Breakthrough The simulation was spearheaded by an international team of scientists from the UK, the European Space Agency, and Germany. They created a subscale model of an entry probe, akin to the one used in NASA’s Galileo mission to Jupiter, and subjected it to conditions mimicking those of Uranus’ atmosphere. This involved replicating atmospheric speeds up to 19 kilometers per second and using gas mixtures similar to those found on Neptune and Uranus. Entry experiment in the PWK1 plasma wind tunnel at the University of Stuttgart. (ESA) Despite their similarities, Uranus and Neptune present distinct characteristics, such as differences in atmospheric composition and color hues. Unlike Saturn and Jupiter, these ice giants have unique atmospheric conditions that cannot be analogized easily. This makes direct exploration and study essential for a comprehensive understanding of these distant planets. Designing a probe capable of withstanding the extreme conditions of Uranus’ atmosphere is a significant challenge. The probe must endure high pressures and temperatures, necessitating a robust thermal protection system. During the simulation, the probe experienced speeds up to 23 kilometers per second, generating intense heat as it traversed the simulated atmospheres. A 1:10 model of the Galileo probe undergoing entry testing in the T6 Stalker Tunnel. (University of Oxford) Two key facilities played a crucial role in this simulation. The T6 Stalker Tunnel at Oxford University, a hypersonic plasma facility, and the plasma wind tunnels at the University of Stuttgart’s High Enthalpy Flow Diagnostics Group. These facilities enabled the replication of the atmospheric conditions of Uranus and Neptune, providing valuable data on convective heat flux across the probe’s surface.